• Lonie Buur posted an update 2 months ago

    What is a geopolitical crisis?Before investigating the geopolitical crisis, this debate requires a comprehensive definition of the critical region. Region is the geographic context of any geographic-political phenomenon, in particular geopolitical crisis. If all factors constructing crisis are clearly distinguished and recognized, critical…[Read more]

  • Lonie Buur posted an update 2 months ago

    With respect to the biosecurity aspect, the presence of viral genomes in cell culture sera illustrates that these commercial sera can contain a mixture of different viruses comprising NPHV, EPgV 1 and also the more rare TDAV and therefore can be regarded as potentially infectious for susceptible hosts. Different viral genomes were found…[Read more]

  • Lonie Buur posted an update 2 months ago

    When attempts to recover infectious virus by encapsidating NS-NSV genomes in vitro and transferring them into virus-infected Natural Product Library failed, focus shifted to short artificial RNA derived from the 3′ and 5′ end of the genome containing a marker gene (CAT) or to short, naturally-occurring genomes of defective interfering (DI) viral…[Read more]

  • Lonie Buur posted an update 2 months ago

    The Raman spectra of a fresh device PE and electrolyte solution are reported in Fig. 2 curve a and b respectively, for the investigated system (N719 as sensitizer and HSE as electrolyte solution). The bands assignments has been already extensively discussed in previous studies [13,19,20] and reported in the spectrum of Fig. 2 by labelling each…[Read more]

  • Lonie Buur posted an update 2 months ago

    ConclusionsConflict of interest statementAcknowledgementsIntroductionCoenurus cerebralis, the larval stage of Taenia multiceps (Tm), is the pathogen causing a worldwide disease, Coenurosis. C. cerebralis generally parasitizes the brain, spinal cord, muscle and subcutaneous tissues of artiodactyl animals(Kish et al., 2015; Li et al., 2015)and can…[Read more]

  • Lonie Buur posted an update 2 months ago

    IntroductionToxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. The ingestion of uncooked/undercooked meat and consumption of water contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts, excreted by felids are the main modes of transmission of this parasite. There are numerous reports (Dubey, 2010; Dubey et al., 2014) of T. gondii infection in North American…[Read more]

  • Lonie Buur posted an update 2 months, 1 week ago

    ConclusionsConflict of interest statementIntroductionBovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed causes of morbidity and mortality in cattle, both within large feedlots and traditional, smaller, pasture-based husbandry systems (Edwards, 2010; Murray et al., 2016a). The pathogenesis of BRD is often driven by complex…[Read more]

  • Lonie Buur posted an update 2 months, 1 week ago

    In our study, we have investigated whether HIV-2 is capable of utilizing the CD169/GM3 dependent mature DC-mediated trans infection pathway for efficient dissemination to CD4+ T cells. We observe significantly less capture of HIV-2 by mature DCs and hence, subsequently less mature DC-mediated transfer of HIV-2 to autologous CD4+ T cells. We…[Read more]

  • Lonie Buur posted an update 2 months, 1 week ago

    Considering the Aβ42 peptide primary sequence [13], glycine represents seven amino acid residues and comprises 16.67% of the amino acids in this peptide. Furthermore, the relationship between oxidative stress and changes in glucose transport has been shown by studies [14,15]. In addition, Aβ alters glucose transport in the Krebs cycle; this…[Read more]

  • Lonie Buur posted an update 2 months, 1 week ago

    Molecular analyses conducted on samples collected 7days from the onset of infection identified different mutations at the level the HA and NA. Interestingly, 8 out of the 12 amino fluorescent probes changes on the HA were located within antigenic sites or in the receptor binding domain, suggesting that they might have been selected as a result…[Read more]

  • Lonie Buur posted an update 2 months, 1 week ago

    ConclusionsThe fundamental conclusions of the early studies were that α proteins perform multiple functions that result in the recruitment to the viral transcriptome critical components necessary for effective transcription as well as in preemptive degradation of cellular defense mechanisms-functions not covered in this review. The fundamental…[Read more]

  • Lonie Buur posted an update 2 months, 1 week ago

    Raman spectra in the region 3500–100cm−1 were excited by Nd:YAG laser line 1064nm with power at sample 50mW and were recorded with an RAMII with Vertex70 Bruker FT-Raman module with a 4cm−1 resolution. For evaluation of the full width at the half height (FWHH) of lines in the Raman spectra the Bruker software OPUS 6.5 was used.Computational…[Read more]

  • Lonie Buur posted an update 2 months, 1 week ago

    DiagnosisSamples recommended for collection for achieving diagnosis of chlamydial abortions, optimal sampling time and conditions of transportation of samples are summarised in Tables 2 and 3.ControlConcluding remarksIn the future, a significant progress should come from development of techniques of gene transfer between strains (Binet and…[Read more]

  • Lonie Buur posted an update 2 months, 1 week ago

    If all the variation is attributable to environment, selection of phenotypically superior individuals does not result in any alteration in the next generation [5–7]. In making breeding plans, it is, therefore, necessary to know the relative importance of the heritable and environmental variation of the characters. Only the phenotypic values of…[Read more]

  • We have used vibrational spectroscopy to confirm the catalytic activity of some metals towards amide bond cleavage and our results show an excellent agreement with biological studies [8–14]. Two of those works state that the upshifts observed for both νCO and νCN modes of formamide (FA) are due to its neutral form, which is stabilized by the…[Read more]

  • Crystals of nucleosides have been studied and no convincing evidence was furnished pointing to the existence of any structural phase transition at low temperatures [3–6]. However, under higher-pressure conditions evidences of phase transitions were found. For example, adenosine was investigated under high-pressure, and the study showed that the…[Read more]

  • ConclusionPEGs are good candidates to investigate the oligomer-to-polymer regime crossover, namely the transition from a regime where the system spectroscopic properties change significantly to a regime where they keep almost constant with the increasing of the chain length. In the present work, IR and Raman data, collected on pure EG and pure…[Read more]

  • Iron-regulated peptide receptors involved in bacterial pathogenicity have been reported by many research groups (Arafah et al., 2009; Buettner et al., 2009; Hwang et al., 2008; Sheldon and Heinrichs, 2012; Visai et al., 2009). In our study, four differentially expressed proteins were examined for potential virulence. Of these proteins, PspB was…[Read more]

  • Ovine footrot is a severe contagious disease with important impacts on animal production and welfare worldwide. In particular, the virulent strains of the primary pathogen, can cause severe outbreaks. The bacterium is fastidious and previous diagnostic tools to differentiate virulent from benign strains were time-consuming and had low…[Read more]

  • ResultsDiscussionResistance to the mutagenic activity of ribavirin has been mainly associated with the RdRp of the target viruses (). This is expected because this nucleoside analogue is intracellularly converted into RTP, which is the active mutagenic substrate for some RdRPs (Agudo et al., 2010; Beaucourt and Vignuzzi, 2014; Crotty et al., 2001;…[Read more]

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