• Pneumonia initially affects a BHS herd as an epizootic resulting in all-age die-offs. It subsequently develops into an enzootic disease with recurring lamb deaths over successive years, resulting in lowered lamb recruitment and herd survival (Miller, 2001; Cassirer and Sinclair, 2007). Surviving BHS can become carriers and continue to harbor the…[Read more]

  • Materials and methodsResultsDiscussionHere and previously (Zhirnov and Manykin, 2015) we have observed the appearance of bleb-like structures on the surface of influenza A virus particles exposed to acidic media. It is important to mention that only a single bleb can be identified in a given virus particle and this bleb lacks spikes on its…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 5 days, 4 hours ago

    The development of was also observed in the tick midgut into which was inoculated to by using an artificial feeding system consisting of infected erythrocytes (approximately 1% parasitemia) and adult bovine serum. Artificially engorged ticks were dissected at 12h post engorgement to obtain the midgut, and contents of midgut were smeared on the…[Read more]

  • Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridisation analyses of equine skeletal muscle sections show the existence of a spectrum of fibre types with pure and hybrid myosin content according to the scheme 1 ↔ 1 + 2A ↔ 2A ↔ 2A+2X ↔ 2X (Rivero et al., 1996b; Eizema et al., 2003). As discussed below, the relative proportions of these fibre types change as a…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 6 days, 6 hours ago

    Rodents serve as amplifying hosts and carrier or reservoir hosts for many parasitic pathogens, and maintain pathogen transmission cycles in a number of different environments that causes animal diseases, thus causing huge economic loss in animal husbandry sector. Rats have also been incriminated as intermediate hosts for N. caninum (Meerburg et…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 1 week ago

    IgG1 together with IgE act as part of the Pirfenidone cost mechanisms of the humoral immune response against helminths (Rihet et al., 1991; Dunne et al., 1992; Matsumoto et al., 2013). In this study, in sera from patients 1–2, IgE and IgG1 anti-ML-ESP levels decreased through time. Nevertheless, in patients 3–4, specific IgE levels were maintain…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 1 week, 2 days ago

    MethodologyA total of 17 Cobb chickens that were 50 days old, with an average body weight of 1300g, were inoculated with A. vasorum L3. The parasites were obtained from 170 individuals from the Omalonyx matheroni species of mollusks, which were individually infected using polystyrene culture plates with 10mm wells (Manufacturer: TPP). A total of…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 1 week, 3 days ago

    Due to the ubiquitous nature of the HYAL-2 receptor, Jaagsiekte Sheep RetroVirus and Enzootic Nasal Tumour Virus may thus be able to enter different cell types. However, their active replication is restricted to epithelial cells of nasal cavity and lung parenchyma. Their tropism restriction is then not only controlled by their interaction with the…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 1 week, 3 days ago

    Therefore, the objectives of this work were: first, to describe gamithromycin susceptibility of M. haemolytica, P. multocida, and Histophilus somni isolated from cattle diagnosed with and treated for BRD, which had previously either received treatment for control of BRD (MM) or sham-saline injection (CON), and second, to characterize the macrolide…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 1 week, 4 days ago

    ConclusionsFurther studies in wildlife and domestic azilsartan medoxomil in anthropic areas are planned in order to identify the principal reservoirs of these parasites in the center of México, a very urbanized area. Species studied will include opossums (Didelphis virginiana), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and other mammal species with synanthropic…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 1 week, 4 days ago

    The proteases present a broad mk-801 variety, being easily manipulated, which facilitates their biotechnological applications (Wit et al., 1989). In this sense, nematophagous fungi proteases are involved in the process of fungi infection versus nematodes (Tunlid and Jansson 1991; Dias et al., 2013; Braga et al., 2013b). This statement was also…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 1 week, 5 days ago

    In human medicine, it has been shown that SDD treatment as an adjunct to dental cleaning was effective and did not affect the subgingival microflora (Caton and Ryan, 2011). The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of SDD as an adjunctive therapy to dental cleaning, and to assess any alteration of subgingival microflora and its…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 1 week, 6 days ago

    Diversity and taxonomic considerationsFungal viruses have diverse genomes including ones made of linear dsRNA (currently classified into seven families: Chryso-, Endorna- Megabirna-, Quadri-, Partiti-, Reo-, and Totiviridae), linear positive-sense ssRNA (+RNA) (currently classified into five families: Alphaflexi-, Barna-, Gammaflexi-, Hypo-, and…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 2 weeks, 1 day ago

    Bovine fasciolosis as a herd health problem is confirmed if at least one of the examined animals (excluding bought in animals) sheds eggs or is serologically positive and at least one snail habitat on a pasture or in a hay field can be found. The following control strategies are recommended for these scenarios:The choice of the flukicide generally…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 2 weeks, 4 days ago

    Materials and methodsResultsDiscussionThe recent emergence of EVD in individuals living with domestic pets highlighted unanswered questions and deficiencies in our understanding not only of the ability of domestic animals to be infected with EBOV, but also the potential role of domestic animals, particularly pets such as dogs and cats, in…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 2 weeks, 4 days ago

    Experiments and discussionsThe proposed descriptors are evaluated on four challenging datasets: KTH dataset in Ref. [14], ADL dataset in Ref. [31] and UT-Interaction dataset in Ref. [22]. KTH dataset contains 600 videos of 25 persons performing 6 actions: “walking”,“jogging”,“running”,“boxing”, “hand waving” and “hand clapping”. Each action…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 2 weeks, 5 days ago

    With an average prevalence of 10%, IBH can be considered a significant clinical problem in the BWP population. IBH susceptibility in horses has been shown to be heritable in other horse breeds (), but heritability estimates for IBH susceptibility have not been previously calculated in a Warmblood horse population. The results of the present study…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 2 weeks, 6 days ago

    The commercial VetMIC GN-mo test panel based on broth microdilution was used in our study. It has also been used in some recent studies (Bonke et al., 2011; Schneeberger et al., 2015). All isolates of biotypes 2 and 5 were very susceptible to the tested antimicrobials. The isolates were resistant only to ampicillin, which is typical for most…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 3 weeks ago

    ConclusionsAdoption of CKD which is a by-product material available for free in Iraq for improvement of poor subgrade soils has technical, economic and environmental advantages. This paper covers a comparative study between untreated samples and samples treated with different doses of CKD and different curing periods to investigate their effects…[Read more]

  • Reece Poole posted an update 3 weeks ago

    Many studies have examined the influences of the small diameter of implants based on biomechanical factors. However, until now, there is no study investigating the effect of implants with both small-diameter designs and one-piece or two-piece concepts on biomechanical performance. Therefore, the present study used both three-dimensional finite…[Read more]

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